Evaluation of A Polyherbal Formulation AV VITA FEvaluation of A Polyherbal Formulation AV VITA F for its effects on Phagocytic and chemotactic activity of human polymorphonuclear cells:
Investigator: Dr. Nirmala Rege.
Site: KEM Hospital, A D Marg, Mumbai 12.
CRO: Vedic Lifesciences, Mumbai
Materials & Methods:An In-vitro assay technique was established to determine the phagocytic and microbicidal activity of Polymorphonuclear cells or neurophils using Candida species as test organisms. The assay technique was used to test the degree of activation of Polymorphonuclear cells induced by the herbal formulation AV VITA F, which contains plants mentioned in Ayurvedic texts.
Objective:o Evaluate the Polyherbal formulation against two of the most popular immunostimulants in the herbal kingdom with proven activity: Panax quinquefolius and Tinospora cordifolia and to demonstrate the immunostimulation properties of AV VITA F.
Conclusion: AV VITA F displayed a significantly higher immuno-response in comparison to both Panax quinquefolius and Tinospora cordifolia. The drug increased phagocytic capacity of polymorphonuclear cells in a dose dependant manner upto 200 mg/ml beyond which the activity platued.
Symplocos racemosa :
Antimicrobial and pharmacological actions of some fractions obtained from the bark of S. racemosa have been investigated. A crystalline fraction is found to inhibit the growth of staphylococci, E. coli, enteric and dysenteric group of organisms. The proprietory fraction B and fraction E reduce the frequency and intensity of the contractions in vitro of both pregnant and non-pregnant uteri of some species of animals, prolong the quiescent period and antagonize acetylcholine induced contraction. Fraction B was also a spasmogen on the various parts of the gastrointestinal tract and could be antagonized by atropine. Blood pressure and respiration studies in dogs revealed the fractions A and B to be non-reactive at 10 mg/kg and these extracts were nontoxic to rats at 1 g/mg intraperitoneally.The plant and its formulations are used in diarrhea, for wound healing and to stop hemorrhage. It is also used in skin and eye infections.
The bark of Ashoka tree has been subjected to many studies to document its benefits as a uterine tonic for menstruation- related discomforts, including PMS. These benefits are derived from classic Ayurveda 'tonics' combined with more specific herbs containing phytoestrogens or having an action on the central nervous system as well as on the ovaries. Ashoka (Saraca indica) has been shown to increase estrogen levels and to normalize the endometrium during menstruation.
Saracin, a seed integument lectin from Saraca indica is highly specific for binding N-acetyl-neuraminyl-N-acetyllactosamine [Neu5Ac-alpha-(2-6)/(2-3)-D-Gal-beta-(1-4)-D-GlcNAc]. This lectin has been found to be mitogenic for human lymphocytes, and this mitogenic activity could be inhibited in presence of fetuin. Further, treatment with saracin could induce secretion of IL-2 in a culture of resting human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after 48 h. Saracin has a higher affinity for the CD8(+) than CD4(+) T cells as revealed by FACS analysis. Agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA isolated from lymphocytes cultured under different conditions has shown that this lectin could induce apoptosis in activated T-lymphocytes, as also confirmed by flow cytometric studies. Phenotypic analysis of the apoptotic cells reveals that they belong to CD8(+) T cells lineage. Four surface glycoproteins of PBMC have been found to interact with saracin in a trisaccharide [Neu5Ac-alpha-(2-6)/(2-3)-D-Gal-beta-(1-4)-D-GlcNAc]-sequence specific manner. Saracin seems to be an interesting immunomodulator for the mammalian immune system
Asparagus racemosa :
Asparagus racemosa is a rejuvenating herb that cools the body and strengthens and nourishes the tissues. Traditionally used to stimulate the production of female hormones, Asparagus racemosa may be translated as "100 spouses," implying its ability to increase fertility and vitality. It encourages the production of milk in lactating mothers, and is also useful during menopause and for women who have had hysterectomies. Asparagus racemosa serves to build immunity, improve the intellect, stimulate digestion, and enhance strength and energy. It helps remove toxins from the blood and supports the proper function of the liver. Asparagus racemosa also acts to soothe, protect and nurture inflamed membranes of the lungs, stomach, kidneys and reproductive organs.
Asparagus racemosa is the main Ayurveda rejuvenative for women. It both nourishes and cleanses the blood and supports the female reproductive functions. Asparagus racemosa is recommended for menopause and also helps maintain a healthy urinary tract and strengthens the immune system.
The plant's action as a galactogogue has been reported by Patel & Kantikar. In a study by Sahnis et al it was shown that in the estrogen-primed rats A. racemosus could cause both increase in the weight of mammary lobulo-alycolar tissue and the milk yield. It was attributed to the action of released corticosteroids or an increase in prolactin. Gaitonde and Jethmalani, have observed antioxytocie and anti- ADH activity in the saponin fractions isolated from the roots of A. racemosus.
In a recent study by Sharma et al. Shatavari was shown to possess anabolic properties viz. growth promotion. The authors also consider the plant as an adaptogenic substance.
The proprietory ethyl acetate and acetone extracts of Woodfordia fructicosa have a stimulating effect on the central nervous system at high doses. The antagonizing stimulants such as amphetamine are synergistic with barbiturate'. Ellagic acid is known to have astringent and haemostatic properties". Ellagic acid also affects histamine release.The flowers are useful in dysentery, diarrhea, leucorrhoea and menorrhagia'. Powdered flower is sprinkled over foul ulcers and wounds to enhance healing.In a study conducted by Kroes BH, et al, the impact of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers on the immunomodulatory activity was investigated by means of model preparations. The use of Woodfordia flowers in model preparations resulted in a substantial increase of the inhibition of both human complement activity and chemiluminescence generated by zymosan-stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It was established that the increased biological activity was not due to microbial interference, but to immuno-active constituents released from the Woodfordia flowers. It was also found that the flowers themselves are not the source of proprietory-producing microorganisms. Experiments performed with yeasts isolated from commercial Nimba arishtas showed, in agreement with empirical findings, significantly raised proprietory content upon addition of Woodfordia. An invertase activity exhibited by Woodfordia flowers may be causative of this effect.The anti-cancer properties of Woodfruticosin (woodfordin C) (WFC) was investigated. Woodfruticosin (woodfordin C) (WFC),a new inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II (topo-II), was isolated from methanol extract of Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz (Lythraceae) and studied for in vitro and in vivo antitumor activities in comparison with Adriamycin (ADR) and etoposide (ETP), well known inhibitors of topo-II. The inhibitory activity against DNA topo-II shown by WFC was much stronger than that shown by ETP or ADR. WFC inhibited strongly intracellular DNA synthesis but not RNA and protein synthesis. On the other hand, WFC had a weaker growth inhibitory activity against various human tumor cells than ETP or ADR, but it showed remarkable activity against PC-1 cells and moderate activity against MKN45 and KB cells. Furthermore, WFC had in vivo growth inhibitory activity against s.c. inoculated colon38. These results indicate that the mechanism by which WFC exhibits antitumor activity may be through inhibition of topo-II
Pyrus malus :
The often used phrase “ an apple a day keeps the doctor away” is not just a means of getting children to eat apples!, it is based on indisputable clinical evidence that apples do infact have significant health benefits. Researchers at the Graduate Institute of Pharmacognosy Science, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan have demonstrated that 70% aqueous acetone extract of apples exhibited stronger activity against DPPH radicals, and their IC50 values ranged from 5.4 to 8.3 microg/ml. .
A traditional formula of 10 herbs, Dashmool combines the roots of herbs with compelling ethnopharmacological data. It is found in the highest quality uterine tonics and helps boost the body’s immunity. Containing a wide range of bioactive compounds including Tannins and saponins that exhibit anti-oxidant, anti-cancer activity, the herbs contained in this formula represent the most powerful combination of botanicals known in women’s health care.
In folk medicine, shilajit has been used to treat diverse clinical conditions ranging from peptic ulcer to bone healing. Goel RK, Banerjee RS & Acharya SB, conducted a study to evaluate the possible antiulcerogenic and antiinflammatory activities of shilajit obtained from the rocky mountains of Zarlek, Badekshan, Afghanistan. Shilajit increased the carbohydrate/protein ratio and decreased gastric ulcer index, indicating an increased mucus barrier. Shilajit was found to have significant antiinflammatory effect in carrageenan-induced acute pedal oedema, granuloma pouch and adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. The results of the study thus substantiate the use of shilajit in peptic ulcer and inflammation.
Subapriya R et al, studied the modifying effects of ethanolic extract of neem leaves (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on oxidative stress induced by the potent gastric carcinogen N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in male Wistar rats. The extent of lipid peroxidation and the status of the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were used as intermediate endpoints of chemoprevention. Three different concentrations of ethanolic neem leaf extract (100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) body weight) were administered by intragastric intubation (i.g) for five consecutive days followed by MNNG (i.g) 1.5 h after the final administration. Enhanced lipid peroxidation was accompanied by compromised antioxidant defences in the stomach, liver and erythrocytes of MNNG-treated rats. Pretreatment with ethanolic neem leaf extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight (bw) significantly lowered the concentration of lipid peroxides and increased antioxidant levels. The results demonstrate that neem leaf exerts its chemoprotective effects on MNNG- induced oxidative stress by decreasing lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant status
Glycyrrhiza , or Licorice as it is more commonly known is one of herbalism’s most popular plants. A natural sweetner, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, this plant has been one of the most widely studied herbs. In a study conducted by , rabbits treated with Glycyrrhiza glabra L. for 30 days and in parallel were exposed to vibration stress (30 days) showed a markedly reduced catalase activity in the peripheral blood and increased animal resistance to vibration stress.
In a separate study, researchers assessed licorice root extract for effects on Bcl-2 to identify novel cytotoxic derivatives. Licorice root extract induced Bcl-2 phosphorylation as demonstrated by immunoblot and G2/M cell cycle arrest, similarly to clinically used antimicrotubule agents such as paclitaxel. Bioassay-directed fractionations resulted in a biologically active fraction for Bcl-2 phosphorylation. HPLC separation followed by mass spectrometry and NMR identified 6 compounds. Only one molecule was responsible for Bcl-2 phosphorylation; it was identified as 1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl) 1-propanone (beta-hydroxy-DHP). The effect on Bcl-2 was structure specific, because alpha-hydroxy-DHP, 1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl) 1-propanone, in contrast to beta-hydroxy-DHP, was not capable of Bcl-2 phosphorylation. Pure beta-hydroxy-DHP induced Bcl-2 phosphorylation in breast and prostate tumor cells, G2/M cell cycle arrest, apoptosis demonstrated by Annexin V and TUNEL assay, decreased cell viability demonstrated by a tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and altered microtubule structure. Therefore, these data demonstrate that licorice root contains beta-hydroxy-DHP, which induced Bcl-2 phosphorylation, apoptosis, and G2/M cell cycle arrest, in breast and prostate tumor cells, similarly to the action of more complex (MW >800) antimicrotubule agents used clinically.
Researchers at Faculty of Engineering, Fukuyama University, Japan. Have shown that Isoflavan derivatives, glabridin (1), hispaglabridin A (2), hispaglabridin B (3), 4'-Omethylglabridin (4) and 3'-hydroxy-4'-O-methylglabridin (5), isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra, were investigated for their ability to protect liver mitochondria against oxidative stresses. Mitochondrial lipid peroxidation linked to respiratory electron transport and that induced non-enzymatically were inhibited by these isoflavans. Hispaglabridin A (2) strongly inhibited both peroxidations and 3'-hydroxy-4'-O-methylglabridin (5) was the most effective at preventing NADH-dependent peroxidation. 3'-Hydroxy-4'-O-methylglabridin (5) protected mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activities against NADPH-dependent peroxidation injury. Dihydroxyfumarate-induced mitochondrial peroxidation was also prevented by this isoflavan. Isoflavans from G. glabra were shown to be effective in protecting mitochondrial function against oxidative stresses
Piper longum yields an alkaloid “piperine” that has been shown to increase the bio-availability of other compounds. This ingredient is found in all our products.