Adathoda vasica :
Adhatoda vasica Nees is a shrub widespread throughout the tropical regions of southeast Asia. It possesses a wide spectrum of medicinal properties including positive effects on inflammatory diseases. The antiinflammatory activity of the methanol extract, the non-alkaloid fraction, the saponins and the alkaloids was evaluated by the modified hen's egg chorioallantoic membrane test. The alkaloid fraction showed potent activity at a dose of 50 microg/pellet equivalent to that of hydrocortisone while the MeOH extract and the other fractions showed less activity. In another study the antitussive activity of Adhatoda vasica (AV) extract was evaluated in anaesthetized guinea pigs and rabbits and in unanaesthetized guinea pigs. AV was shown to have a good antitussive activity. Intravenously, it was 1/20-1/40 as active as codeine on mechanically and electrically induced coughing in rabbits and guinea-pigs. After oral administration to the guinea-pig the antitussive activity of AV was similar to codeine against coughing induced by irritant aerosols.
The effects of the proprietory extract, the petroleum ether fraction, and the aqueous fraction of the proprietory extract of Tylophora asthmatica on weight of the adrenal gland and its functional activities (as evidenced by its cholesterol and vitamin C content, plasma steroid, hydroxyproline content in skin) and pituitary-adrenal axis were studied using normal, unilaterally adrenalectomised, dexamethasone-treated (steroid suppression of ACTH), and stereotaxically hypophysectomised male albino rats. The extracts showed similar actions (i.e. stimulation of adrenals as indicated by increase in weight and decrease in cholesterol and vitamin C contents). The plasma steroid level was increased but skin hydroxyproline level findings were not conclusive. T. asthmatica was found to antagonise dexamethasone/hypophysectomy-induced suppression of pituitary on activity of the adrenals. It may be concluded that T. asthmatica may act by a direct stimulation of the adrenal cortex.
A team of researchers led by Tsukawaki M investigated the relaxant effects of forskolin, a diterpene derivative isolated from the roots of Coleus forskohlii, on guinea pig airway smooth muscle by measuring the isometric tension of tracheal smooth muscle in vitro and transcutaneous Po2 during the histamine inhalation test (HIT) in vivo. Forskolin (10(-9)-10(-5) M) caused dose-dependent relaxant effects on resting tone and on leukotriene C4 (10(-7) M)-, leukotriene D4 (10(-7) M)-, and carbachol (3 X 10(-6) M)-induced contraction of tracheal smooth muscle. Moreover, with propranolol pretreatment the relaxant effect of forskolin on tracheal smooth muscle did not change, whereas with the same pretreatment the relaxant effect of isoproterenol diminished. Forskolin (10(-8)-10(-6) M) raised tissue cyclic AMP levels dose-dependently in tracheal smooth muscle (6.7-359.9 pmol/mg protein). Forskolin (1 mg/kg) administered subcutaneously raised the respiratory threshold of (RT-histamine in the HIT. The determination of the RT-histamine by measuring tcPo2 was possible without anesthesia. These results suggest that forskolin relaxes airway smooth muscle in guinea pigs in vitro and in vivo by raising tissue cyclic AMP levels and that its actions are independent of beta-adrenoceptor.
The proprietory extract of root of Inula racemosa, was studied for its antiallergic effect in experimental models of type I hypersensitivity, viz. egg albumin induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) and mast cell degranulation in albino rats. The proprietory extract was prepared by the process of continuous heat extraction. LD50 of this extract was found to be 2100 +/- 60 mg/kg, i.p. Assessment of protection against egg albumin induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxix by different doses of Inula racemosa was done by giving drug intraperitoneally or orally for seven days or once only. Mast cell degranulation studies were done by using compound 48/80 as degranulation agent with same dosage schedule. Inula racemosa (i.p. as well as p.o.) showed significant protection against egg albumin induced PCA. Protection against compound 48/80 induced mast cell degranulation by proprietory extract of Inula racemosa (single dose) was similar to that of disodium cromoglycate. The seven days drug treatment schedule showed greater protection than disodium cromoglycate intraperitoneally. The results suggest that Inula racemosa possesses potent antiallergic properties in rats.
A methanol extract and an aqueous suspension of Ocimum sanctum inhibited acute as well as chronic inflammation in rats as tested by carrageenan-induced pedal edema and croton oil-induced granuloma and exudate, respectively. In both test procedures, the anti-inflammatory response of 500 mg/kg of methanol extract and aqueous suspension was comparable to the response observed with 300 mg/kg of sodium salicylate. Both the extract and suspension showed analgesic activity in the mouse hotplate procedure and the methanol extract caused an increase in the tail-withdrawal reaction time of a subanalgesic dose of morphine. Both preparations reduced typhoid-paratyphoid A/B vaccine-induced pyrexia. The antipyretic action of the methanol extract and aqueous suspension was weaker and of shorter duration than that of 300 mg/kg sodium salicylate. Oral premedication with the methanol extract and the aqueous suspension delayed castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats
The diarylheptanoid 7-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenylhept-4-en-3-one (HMP) is a naturally occurring phytochemical found in lesser galangal (Alpinia officinarum). In the present study, we have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory properties of this compound on mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro. Treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with HMP (6.25-25 microM) significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production. This compound also inhibited the release of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) from human PB-MCs in vitro. In addition, Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that HMP decreased LPS-induced inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and mRNA expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, HMP treatment also reduced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) DNA binding induced by LPS in RAW 264.7 cells. To elucidate the molecular mechanism for inhibition of proinflammatory mediators by HMP (25 microM), we have studied the effect of HMP on LPS-induced p38 and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We observed that the phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells was markedly inhibited by HMP, whereas activation of p38 MAPK was not affected. These results suggested that HMP from lesser galangal suppressed the LPS-induced production of NO, IL-1 beta, and TNF-alpha and expression of iNOS and COX-2 gene expression by inhibiting NF-kappa B activation and phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK