- Burka J.F., Forskolin: Its chemical,
Biological and Medical Potential. Hoechst
India Ltd. 1986
- Ammon HPT and Muller AB, Forskolin:
From Ayurvedic remedy to a modern agent.
Planta Medica; 51: 474-7. 1985
- De Souza N.J., Forskolin – An example
of innovative drug research and natural
products. AF Harms(ED), Innovative approach
in drug research, Elsevier Science Publishers,
Amsterdam, pp. 191-207
- Heichergens h. Crataegus special extract
WS 1442 in cardiac insufficiency NYH A
- Loew D, Phytotherapy in heart failure,
Phytomedicine 4:267-271, 1997
- Blesher V.R., Use of Crataegus in cardiology,
Fortscher Med. 15: 290-292 1992
- Oconolly et al, Treatment of the elderly,
multimorbid patients with stenocardiac
complaints with Crataegus. Therapiewoche
37: 3587-3600 1987
- Bharani A, et al, Salutray effect of
T. arjuna in patients with severe refractory
heart failure. Int. J.Cardiol. 49: 191-199.
- Reichert R., Terminalia arjuna for Congestive
heart failure. Quarterly Rev. of Nat.
Med Fall: 177-178. 1996
- Divivedi S., et al. Terminalia arjuna
and prostaglandin E activity. Indian Drugs
24: 378-382. 1995
Pharmacology of Forskolin – Cardiology
The anti-hypertensive effects are attributed to a decrease in pre and after loads andimproved left ventricular function as well as decreased peripheral resistance by a directaction on relaxing the arterial smooth muscle. Forskolin also has a positive inotropiceffect on heart muscle. Both the positive inotropic action and the vascular action wereshown to be initiated by the stimulation of the membrane bound enzyme adenylatecyclase resulting in raised intracellular cAMP levels, an activation of protein synthesis, alowering of the membrane bound Na+, K+-ATPase activity and activation of the slowcalcium gate. Stimulation of cAMP levels increases the contractility of the myocardium.Adenylate cyclase is an enzyme-system-complex, with various activating catalytic unitsand sub-units embedded in the membrane bi-layers of numerous tissues including themyocardium, bronchioles, arteries, kidneys etc. Adenylate cyclase has 2 polar sub-units –the catalytic C unit and the nucleotide regulatory sub-unit N. Forskolin directly stimulatesthe C sub-unit, resulting in stimulation of cAMP, which in turns activates and elicits acascade of enzymatic functions.Beta-adrenergic agonists are potent pharmacological cardiac agents and are usedtherapeutically in the treatment of heart failure. However, such compounds have a majordisadvantage that limits their long term use. Continuous exposure to beta-agonistsrenders the myocardium sub-sensitive by reducing beta-receptor density and/or receptorcyclasecoupling. Both of these sub-sensitivity phenomenon are apparently regulatedthrough the N sub-unit of Adenylate Cyclase. Forskolin, however, acts primarily via the Csub-unit and does not demonstrate the sub-sensitivity phenomenon or beta-receptor downregulation. Indeed Forskolin exhibits positive inotropic and chronotropic characteristics, asseen in guinea pig, sheep, rat, pig, rabbit and human studies.Forskolin also been shown to inhibit platelet aggregation and produces deaggregation ofhuman aggregated platelets.NOTE: The Forskolin content in AV CIRCULO is optimally standardized by HPLC. TheFull spectrum extract containing 4% Forskolin content is the maximal amount extractable withoutcompromising the quality and exclusion of other beneficial compounds. Higher levels ofForskolin results in a less effective product. This is confirmed by the studies of Hoechst AG, who conducted the original research.